11 Apr 2011

Our dictionary/glossary of bonsai and bonsai-related terminology.

APEX - The highest point of a tree.
 
BEECH - Large deciduous trees with rounded spreading crowns and smooth grey bark that can be used for bonsai.
 
BLEED - To weep sap.
 
BONSAI - An art-form that consists of growing and training a small tree in a pot.

BROADLEAF - Trees that have flat, wide leaves.

 
BROOM - A bonsai form/style consisting of a lot of symmetrical branching in a cone-shape (also known as HOKIDACHI).
 
BUD - A compact knoblike growth on a plant that develops into a leaf, flower, or shoot.
 
BUDBREAK - The stage of bud development where green tissue becomes visible.
 
BUDBURST - The emergence of new leaves on a tree.
 
BUNJINGI - See LITERATI.
 
BUTTRESS - The base of a tree's trunk where the roots emerge.
 
CALLOUS - The hard formation of wood that grows over a wound on a tree.
 
CAMBIUM - The layer of tissue between the XYLEM and PHLOEM, where new wood is formed.
 
CASCADE - A bonsai form/style where the trunk grows downward and overhangs the pot (also known as KENGAI).
 
CEDAR - A group of conifers that can be used for bonsai.
 
CHIU - A bonsai tree from 12 to 24 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
CHLOROSIS - Abnormal reduction or loss of the normal green coloration of leaves of plants, typically caused by iron deficiency.
 
CHOKKAN - See FORMAL UPRIGHT.
 
CONIFER - A tree that bears cones and evergreen needle-like leaves.
 
CULTIVAR - A plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breeding.
 
DAI- A bonsai tree from 24 to 36 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
DESSICATION - Extreme dryness caused by dehydration.
 
DECIDUOUS - A tree that sheds its leaves anually.
 
DEFOLIATION - The process of partly or completely removing the leaves of a tree during its summer dormant period.
 
DIEBACK - A condition in which a tree or shrub begins to die from the tip of its leaves or roots backward, owing to disease or an unfavorable environment.
 
DRAINAGE MESH - A mesh that covers the drainge holes at the bottom of a bonsai bot to prevent soil falling out.
 
EDA-JIN - Artificially bleached branches.
 
EDA-NUKI - Removal of unwanted branches.
 
EDA-UCHI - Harmonizing branches using position, condition, length and flow.
 
ELM - Tall, deciduous trees that can be used for bonsai.
 
ERICACEOUS - Trees that love acidic conditions and hate lime (alkaline) conditions.
 
EVERGREEN A tree that retains green leaves all year round.
 
FICUS - Tropical trees that can be used for bonsai.
 
FOREST - A bonsai form/style where many small trees are planted in the same pot to create a depict a forest (also known as YOSE-UYE).
 
FORM - Used to categorise a bonsai according to its predominant feature or direction of its trunk (see also STYLE).
 
FORMAL UPRIGHT - A bonsai form/style where the trunk goes straight up with visible tapering (also known as CHOKKAN).
 
FUKINAGASHI - See WINDSWEPT.
 
GENUS - Used to categorise a group of trees that have common characteristics.
 
GROWING-ON-ROCK - A bonsai form/style where a trees roots grow over a rock (also known as SEKI-JOJU).
 
HAN-KENGAI - See SEMI-CASCADE.
 
HOKIDACHI - See Broom.
 
INFORMAL UPRIGHT - A bonsai form/style consisting of a non-straight, none-symmetrical tapered trunk (also known as MOYOGI)
 
INTERNODE - The part of a tree between two of the nodes from which leaves emerge.
 
JIN - A deadwood technique that is applied to the top of a tree to give the impression of oldage and/or exposure to harsh conditions (see also SHARI).
 
JUNIPER - An evergreen tree that bears berrylike cones and can be used for bonsai.
 
KENGAI - See CASCADE.
 
KOTATE MOCHI - A bonsai tree from 6 to 12 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
LARCH - Coniferous trese with bunches of deciduous bright green needlesthat can be used for bonsai.
 
LITERATI - A bonsai form/style where a tree has a tall thin trunk with branches and sparse foliage only at the summit (also known as BUNJINGI).
 
MAME - A bonsai tree from 3 to 6 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
MAPLE - Trees with lobed leaves and winged fruits that can be used for bonsai.
 
MOYOGI - See INFORMAL UPRIGHT.
 
NEBARI - Visible roots at the base of a bonsai.
 
NEEDLE - A very narrow, hard leaf that is usually found on evergreen trees.
 
NODE - Growth point on a branch or trunk from which leaves, leaf buds and shoots can arise.
 
OVERPOTTING - Planting a bonsai tree in a container that is larger than necessary to maintain it.
 
OVERWATERING - Inadequate draining or toomuch watering, which can result in root rot.
 
PHLOEM - The vascular tissue in a tree that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves.
 
PINE - Evergreen coniferous trees that have clusters of long needle-shaped leaves and can be used for bonsai.
 
POTTING - The process of planting a bonsai in its pot.
 
POMEGRANATE - A deciduous fruit-bearing tree that can be used for bonsai.
 
PRUNING - The technique of cutting unwanted branches, twigs and leaves from a tree.
 
RAMIFICATION -  The development of a dense twigging structure by a series of divisions of branches into twigs and twiglets.
 
REPOTTING - The process of removing a bonsai tree from its pot and replanting it in the same or a different pot.
 
SABAMIKI - A tree with a trunk that is split open or hollow.
 
SEKI-JOJU - See GROWING-ON-ROCK.
 
SEMI-CASCADE - A bonsai form/style where some branching overhangs the pot (also known as HAN-KENGAI).
 
SHAKKAN - See SLANTING.
 
SHARI - A deadwood technique on the trunk of a bonsai (see also JIN).
 
SHITO - A bonsai tree up to 3 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
SHOIN - A bonsai tree up  to 6 inches tall (measured from the soil to the apex).
 
SLANTING - A bonsai form/style where the trunk is straight and tapered but grows at an acute angle to the ground (also known as SHAKKAN).
 
SOKAN - See TWIN-TRUNK.
 
SUIBAN  - A shallow tray without drainage holes.
 
SPECIES - Used to sub-categorise a group of trees in a particular GENUS that have common characteristics.
 
SPRUCE - Coniferous evergreen trees that can be used for bonsai.
 
STYLE - See FORM.
 
SUISEKI - The art of admiring the natural beauty of stone or 'viewing stones'.
 
TAPERING - Describes the narrowing of a tree's trunk towards to apex.
 
TWIN-TRUNK - A bonsai form/style where two trunks grow from the same root system of a tree (also known as SOKKAN).
 
UNDERWATERING - Dehydration of a tree caused by lack of water.
 
VIEWING STONE - See SUISEKI.
 
WINDSWEPT - A bonsai form/style where the branches all point in the same direction (also known as FUKINAGASHI).
 
WIRING - The technique of using wire on a bonsai tree's trunk and branches to train it to grow according to the bonsai artists ideals.
 
XYLEM - The vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem.
 
YOSE-UYE - See FOREST.

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